Technical Textile Terms Glossary
The A&E Technical Textile Terms Glossary is a comprehensive online resource of technical terms in use in the textile industry, and covering technology, materials, manufacturing processes and products.
Acetate: Cellulosic fiber used as a braider yarn.
Aerospace Market: Would include a braided power cable usually braided with an Aramid fiber with excellent heat resistance. Used to supply power to the instrumentation, etc.
Anetec™: A&E® brand name for all SEY high performance products.
Appliance Cables: Power cables used in appliances to carry low to medium voltage. These cables generally have a braided jacket that is made from Polyester. In some special applications, appliance cables can also have braided jackets made from special fibers like glass, DuPont™ Nomex®, Nylon, etc. Also, many appliance cables are hermetically sealed. These cable are also used for instrumentation in the aviation industry. (DuPont™ and Nomex® are registered Trademarks of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company and are used under license to A&E®.)
Armored Cables: Cables that have a metal jacket below the outer synthetic coating or jacket. The purpose is to protect buried cables from being cut easily.
Beveled Edge Package: Refers to a package that is tapered on both ends with sharp corners allowing for more yardage than a bi-conical package.
Binder Yarns: Refers to yarns that are used to wrap a bundle of stranded, insolated wires in the manufacturing of cables. The purpose of binders is to hold the bundle together until the jacketing operation.
Bi-conical: Refers to a package that has a gradual taper on both ends. Usually, they are not as hard as a straight or beveled edge package. However, they cannot hold as much yarn.
Bomb: Refers to a bi-conical package usually 6 1/2” X 5/8” X O.D., which will be used primarily on a planetary binder operation.
Braider Tube: Refers to the bi-conical package that Braider Yarns are wound on that fits on a braiding machine.
Braider Yarns: Refers to yarns used in the power cable industry usually for powering electrical appliances. The braider yarns act as an insulator when used in conjunction with a Mylar Tape.
Cable Twist Construction: Refers to a two end construction used primarily for Ripcords. This is only available in 2-ply.
Category 5 Cable: A telecommunication cable used inside a building that always has a ripcord.
Cob: Package that generally has a large opening for loading on a binding operation that has beveled edges. A cob’s dimension normally includes the length of the tube, the inside diameter of the tube, and the width of the yarn package. Many customers will also specify the length or traverse of the yarn on the package. (Example: 10” X 5” X 8” with a 9” traverse.)
Cones: Refers to a package that has a greater base diameter than nose diameter. Generally, used for vertical yarn presentation to a machine. Primarily used for Marker yarns and sometimes Ripcords.
Copper Cables: Power or telecommunication cables that have a copper core or have a stranded copper core inside. The copper is used to carry the power or signal. Generally, copper cables are constructed using Binder, Ripcord, and Marker Yarns. Some also have Filler Yarns. All of the textiles are sold either soft or non-wicking.
Control Cables: Refers to power cables used to carry either medium or high voltage current. Generally, control cables are constructed using Binder, Ripcord, and Filler Yarns. Textile yarns used in control cables are soft finish.
Fiber Optic: Used for telecommunication cables that have a glass core or are stranded. The glass is used to carry the signal. Generally, glass cables are constructed using Binder, Ripcord, and Marker Yarns. Some also have Filler Yarns. All of the textiles are sold with a water swellable finish to prevent leaks if the outer shell gets nicked.
Filler Yarns: Used to fill voids in the cable construction so the bundle is round prior to jacketing. The most common fiber used for this application is polypropylene. These yarns are generally sold in a soft finish.
Flat Yarn Construction: A non-twisted monocord construction generally used in Binder Yarns to provide the lowest profile so that less jacketing material is required.
Glass: Refers to fiber glass continuous filaments used in the Telecommunications Industry. The glass carries the transmission signal. Glass is also used as a strength member.
Hermetically Sealed Cables: Refers to power cables for appliances that are to be used in clean environments. Anetec™ Braider Yarns are sterilized and used to over-braid the transmission medium (copper) prior to sealing.
I.D. Markers: Refers to textile yarns that are used for identification purposes and that are introduced during the manufacturing process of cables and wires. These Marker Yarns are used in the field to tell when the wire or cable was made, who made it and sometimes other important information related to the end-use of the product. A&E’s product for this is Anetec™ Marker Yarns.
Insolated Wire: Refers to wire that has an extruded covering or insolator.
Jacketed Cable: Refers to any cable that is sheathed in a synthetic protective outer coat.
Lacing Cords: Refers to a synthetic yarn used in the motor winding industry.
Low Twist Construction: Refers to any type of yarn that has a low level of twist. These yarns may appear to be oval shaped. Used in Binder Yarns and Ripcords for unarmored cables.
Lower Yarn Profile: Refers to a Binder Yarn that lies extremely flat around the wire bundle. The flat lay allows for a reduction in the jacket thickness and also minimizes the visual appearance of ribbing caused by an oval shaped thread.
Low-Extractable Lube: Refers to a yarn that has been treated to remove all lubricants and extrusion by products.
Marker Yarns: Refers to textile yarns that are introduced for identification purposes. The yarns are used to identify manufacturing location, date of manufacture, and also identify NEMA requirements. A&E’s brand name for this product is Anetec™ Marker Yarns.
Mechanical Rubber Market: Refers to the markets where specialty yarns are required in the manufacturing of V-Belts, Conveyor Belts, Hoses, etc.
Mechanical Rubber Yarns: Used in the manufacturing of Mechanical Rubber to do one or more of the following: 1) Help hold the bundles of components together, and 2) Add strength
Metal Jacket: Refers to cables or wires that have a metal sheath inside the outer jacket to help protect the wire from being cut once it has been buried under ground.
Moisture Barrier: Yarns that have either a non-wicking or a water swellable finish to help prevent moisture from entering the yarn bundle, which could cause signal interference.
Multi-End Winding: Refers to the ability to wind multiple ends together. The individual yarns can be designed to run parallel to each other or they can cross over each other. This product can be unwound to either separate yarn paths or through a single yarn path.
Non-Wick Finish: Refers to a proprietary finish that is used to prevent the migration of moisture along a yarn that is used in the wire industry.
Nylon: Synthetic yarn that is sometimes used as a marker or Braider Yarn. Infrequently used as a Ripcord.
Package Specifications: Accurate specifications are a critical component for increased line speeds, higher yield, and fewer machine stoppages in the operation. Package specifications include the length and inside diameter of the cob, beginning and ending traverse of the wound yarn, and width of the wound package.
Para-Aramid: Long chain polyamide fiber that exhibits exceptional tensile strength and good heat resistance. Common trade names are Kevlar® and Technora®.
Polyamide Finish: Refers to a Nylon coating that can be applied to various synthetic fibers. This finish is used primarily in the coating of Braider Yarns.
Polyester: Synthetic fiber that is used as a binder and a ripcord. Primarily used because of its low moisture regain characteristics.
Polyethylene: Synthetic fiber with a very good tensile strength. In some cases it is substituted for Kevlar®. The common trade name is Spectra®.
Polypropylene: Synthetic fiber that is used primarily as a cable filler. When used in this application, it is usually sold in a fibrillated film form. The material can be fire retardant treated.
Polyurethane Finish: Refers to a cured resin that is sometimes applied to ripcords.
Power Cables: Refers to cables that are used to carry an electrical current.
PTFE: Teflon® was used as a coating. Not offered at A&E.
Ripcords: Refers to a yarn bundle that is inside the inner and outer jackets that is used to slit open the jackets for easier access to the copper or fiber-optic strands. Ripcords can be made from Aramids, Polyester and Nylon. They can also be made with either a cable twist, low twist, or flat yarn construction. Generally, a cable twist is recommended on cables with metal jackets.
Ryton® (PPS): Synthetic fiber that has very good resistance to both acids and bases. Commonly used in deep well drilling cables. Expensive and difficult to process.
Semi-Conductive: Refers to a synthetic yarn that is used bleed-off static electricity and current leaks. Also used as a shield to prevent cross talk between paired cables.
Serving Tubes: Refers to a large straight edge package usually with a length of 11.5 inches and an inside diameter of 2.875 inches.
SEY: Specialty Engineered Yarns. Refers to the markets that require special fibers, constructions, finishes and put-ups. Generally, refers to the Wire & Cable and Mechanical Rubber Goods Markets.
Single End Winding: Refers to any package that is wound with only one yarn bundle.
Spool: Also referred to as a king spool. Often used on American Knit Corporation Hose Knitting machinery for making mechanical rubber products.
Straight Build Package (Tube): Refers to any type of package that has shoulders that are wound perpendicular to the yarn carrier. These types of packages offer the greatest cubic volume for yarn space. Traditionally, the corners of these packages are weak points and they do not stand up well to high levels of centrifugal force.
Stranded Cable: Cables that have many individual strands of coated wire that make up the cable.
Strength Members: Refers to a medium that is used to support the weight of an aerial cable. This product traditionally is an Aramid fiber. Strength members are used primarily to support the weight of fiber optic cables. Any stretching in the glass medium would result in a distortion in the sent signal.
Swellable Finish: Refers to a finish that is applied to a textile medium. This finish will swell when it comes in contact with moisture. When used in a cable application this finish should plug any nicks in the outer jacket of the cable, resulting in a drier cable. This finish is used mostly in the Fiber Optic Cable Market.
Telecommunication Cable Market: Refers to any cable that is used to carry either a voice or a data signal. These signals could be transmitted on either a copper or a fiber optic cable.
Tube: Refers to any type of package that has shoulders that are wound perpendicular to the yarn carrier. These types of packages offer the greatest cubic volume for yarn space. Traditionally, the corners of these packages are weak points and they do not stand up well to high levels of centrifugal force. Generally used as ripcords and pull-cords.
U.L. Specs: Specifications that are established by Underwriters Lab.
Umbilical Cables: Generally, refers to sealed cables that are used for running power cables and other operational lines to deep well drilling applications, submersibles, or other remote control devices. Generally, ripcords are not used because when an umbilical cable is used for so many pulls, it is replaced. Umbilical cables are used to retrieve the powered unit. Products used would include Binders, Strength Members, Fillers, and Braiders.
Viscose: Refers to Rayon that is some times used as a Braider Yarn.
Wire & Cable Market: Refers to the markets where specialty wires or cables are manufactured. Used in two primary industries: Telecommunications and Power Cables.
Wire & Cable Yarns: Specialty yarns that are used in the manufacturing of wire and cables to do one or more of the following: 1) Help hold the bundles of components together, 2) Add strength, 3) Fill void spaces in the construction, 4) Help in identifying the cables origin, and, 5) Assist in opening the jacket,